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This technology plan is a portion of the international respository maintained and distributed by the:

National Center for Technology Planning (NCTP)
Dr. Larry S. Anderson, Founder/Director
Post Office Box 2393
Tupelo, MS 38803
662/844-9630
larry@nctp.com

This plan's inclusion in the electronic database indicates that it is due consideration by technology planning committees.
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THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY: A NEW BEGINNING

Durango (CO) School District 9-R

THE TECHNOLOGY PLAN

"Technology is the future, our kids are going to be crippled without it."

-------------------------------------------------------------- 

			ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This report is the culmination of five months of concentrated
effort by the Technology Study Team, whose extraordinary
dedication has brought the assigned project to completion.

The Technology Study Team especially recognized the following for
their time, expertise, and special contributions:

	* The Board of Education
	* Dr. Walter Jackson, Superintendent
	* Guidance provided by the IBM Corporation through its
	  consultants Ron Johnson and Glenn Adriance. Their methodology
	  provided the Study Team with a detailed effective procedure.
	* The employees and students of Durango 9-R School District
	  who contributed vital information as well as their astute
	  observations, quoted throughout this plan.



TECHNOLOGY STUDY TEAM

	Kevin Aten          	Language Arts Teacher at D.H.S.
	Jon Cordalis        	Computer Teacher at Smiley Middle School
	Stan Dunlap         	Principal at Miller Middle School
	Ron Johnson         	Plan Facilitator of IBM
	Sandra LaFrance     	Chapter I Teacher at Ft. Lewis Mesa
                                   Elementary School
	Dr. Judy Michalski  	Director of Secondary Curriculum and
                                   Instruction
	Dennis Simpson      	Director of Finance
	Bonna Steinle       	5th Grade Teacher at Florida Mesa
                                   Elementary School
	Jean Thweatt        	Principal at Riverview Elementary School

"Thanks especially to this team for the many hours of personal time they gave and the solid dedication they had to completing this plan. These people worked above and beyond the call of duty!! Thanks so much."

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary.....................................1

Introduction / Background.............................6
        1992 Technology Study.........................8
        Summary of Durango 2000 Educational Outcomes.10
        Methodology..................................11

Findings.............................................13
        Problems.....................................14
        Recommendations..............................23
        Hardware Decisions...........................29

Action Plan..........................................32
        Models.......................................34
        General Training Guidelines..................39
        Technology Implementation Timeline...........42

Conclusions                                          44
        Benefits.....................................45
        Educational Outcomes to be Achieved
          via Technology.............................50
        Future.......................................60
        Remarks......................................61

Appendices
       A Director of Technology Job Description......63
       B Technician Job Description .................68
       C Previous Durango 9-R School District
            Technology Studies.......................73
       D Durango 9-R School District Survey..........80
       E Individual Interviews.......................87
       F Fiscal Implications.........................91

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The major focus of this five-year Technology Study Plan is the implementation of a district-wide network of communication, information and curriculum.

Listed below are the prominent features of this plan:

District Support:

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DHS Support:
Middle School Support:
Elementary School Support:
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PROBLEMS

The above summary was based on the responses to interview questions and surveys, major problem areas were identified as:

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the problems identified, the Technology Study Team designed corresponding recommendations. They addressed the following major areas:

TRAINING

The Technology Study Team, upon the advice of all interview groups, recommended that the position of Director of Technology be established. The director will be charged with the consistent and equitable implementation of the Action Plan and the management of all district technology. The Technology Study Team recommended that the Director be assisted by a technician. Each building shall add clerical help in the library; this will allow the media specialist to assist teachers and the Director with on-site support of technology in each building.

The overwhelming majority of interviewees cited the lack of technology awareness or job-related training as a problem. In response, the Technology Study Team developed a comprehensive training plan, which both addresses these concerns and aligns the acquisition of software and hardware.

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IMPLEMENTATION

The Technology Study Team designed a five year implementation plan containing the following four components:

The critical elements of implementation are:

BENEFITS

Interviewees identified the following learning and job productivity benefits:

  Student benefits:

	* Improved job skills/life preparation.
	* Increased student achievement.
	* Greater motivation for teachers and students.
	* Increased learning time.
	* Enhanced learning environment.

  Staff benefits:

	* Increased productivity/efficiency.
	* Time saved/redirected.
	* Timely access to information.
	* Reduced duplication of effort.
	* Improved planning/decision-making.
	* Revenues saved/redirected.
	* Enhanced communication.
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INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND

"Technology is the future, our kids are going to be crippled without it."

In 1986 and again in 1991, the District created technology study teams to provide recommendations to the Board of Education. A brief history setting forth the recommendations of these technology teams can be found in Appendix C.

In the Fall of 1991, the Superintendent accepted an offer from the IBM Corporation to conduct a study of the District's technology needs. An agreement was reached with IBM to consult with a District Technology Study Team, and develop a technology plan for Durango 9-R School District. The IBM consultant services were provided without cost or obligation.

Under the guidance of the Director of Secondary Curriculum and Instruction and the Director of Finance, a Technology Study Team was formed. It was composed of four classroom teachers, two principals, the director of finance, director of secondary curriculum and instruction, and a planning facilitator. The Technology Study Team began to meet in November 1991, and concluded in April 1992, with a five year technology implementation plan, which addresses the District's current and future technology needs. This plan was presented to the Superintendent and the Board of Education for approval on April 14, 1992

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1992 TECHNOLOGY STUDY

In the Fall of 1991, Dr. Walter Jackson provided the leadership, based on a comprehensive district vision and created the Technology Study Team that developed the 1992 Technology plan.

The plan considered the Durango 9-R Mission Statement and a mission statement was created for the Technology Study Team. They are:

9-R Mission Statement: "To empower 9-R students to meet the challenges of the 21st Century by providing them with the knowledge, skills and experiences necessary to succeed."

Technology Study Team Mission Statement: "Develop a plan for the use of technology in achieving the district's mission."

The first step was outlining the current problems and concerns.

PROBLEMS AND CONCERNS

  1. Awareness of teachers/staff about what technologies are available.
  2. Integrating technology into curriculum.
  3. Staff uncomfortable and resistant to technology.
  4. Lack of overall district direction with technology.
  5. Lack of access to technology.
  6. Spending money and wondering what to do with equipment.
  7. Training and staff development not coordinated with acquisitions.
  8. Lack of technology that assesses student growth.
  9. Lack of ability to tie investment in technology to student growth.
  10. Lack of software and programs.
  11. Full use and effective use of equipment.
  12. No capability of networking teachers and students.
  13. Blind allegiance to vendors.
  14. Site-based decisions for technology.
  15. Funding future and maintaining current technology.
  16. School closes at 4:00 p.m.
  17. Use of computers in labs vs. classroom.
  18. No electronic connectivity among district, classroom, and school sites.
  19. Lack of expectation for staff regarding use of technology.
  20. Concern about Vocational/Technical education.

Based on the problems, the next step was developing categories that will need to be addressed in the Technology Plan.

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PRELIMINARY OBJECTIVES

The Technology Study Team developed the following preliminary objectives. Throughout the study, these objectives were addressed; appropriate recommendations for each major area are included in this technology plan.

Training/Staff Development/Awareness Utilization

Design & implement on-going staff development on all current
and future technologies. Problems: 1,3,6,7,11,13,14,19

Curriculum Integration

Incorporate technology into curriculum outcomes and
assessment of student growth. Problems: 2,8,9,19,20

Acquisition Guidelines

Establish guidelines for acquiring, implementing, maintaining
and replacing technological solutions. Problems: 1,4,10,15

Access to Technology

Guarantee equitable and appropriate access to technology
across all levels and all disciplines. Problems: 5,16,17,18

Electronic Connectivity

Build electronic communication networks among classrooms,
buildings, district and outside resources. Problems: 4,12,18

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SUMMARY OF DURANGO 2000 EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES

The major focus throughout this technology study was on the question..."What difference will technology make in helping the student learn?" The Technology Study Team utilized the Colorado 2000 Educational Outcomes to provide the answer on student learning.

The following summary defines how technology will support the learner in Durango 9-R School District. The entire document is located under Conclusions.

OUTCOMES K-5

Each student, who progresses from Kindergarten to Grades 5, will show sufficient growth to have the prerequisite skills to be successful in each subsequent grade level in language arts (reading, writing, listening, speaking), mathematics, science, fine arts and social studies.

OUTCOMES 6-8

Each student, who progresses from grades 6-8 to high school, will show growth in language arts (reading, writing, listening, speaking), mathematics, technology, science, fine arts and social studies. However, the most significant contribution of the middle school experience is the integration of all these areas in the life of each student.

OUTCOMES 9 - 12

A Durango High School graduate should have developed life-long skills in communicating, thinking and learning. Technological integration is paramount in preparing students to meet the challenges of an increasingly more technologically advanced society. To that end, we believe the DHS community, both teachers and students, should have an adequate level of access, training and literacy for technology. Furthermore, technologies will need to be included in everyday curriculum because of the motivation of the 21st Century generation. Included in this basic level of access should be curricular integration of technology. Technical equipment will help integrate curriculums to produce a student with a greater appreciation of inter-connectedness of the various disciplines.

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METHODOLOGY

"It just feels good to be listened to. I appreciate you asking me."

The Technology Study Team gathered information from certificated and classified District employees, students, parents, and community members in the form of surveys, interviews, and site visits. Ninety interviews provided the information gathered to formulate the Technology Plan.

Interviewees addressed the following questions:

     1. Question: What problems/frustrations do you have in the
	daily performance of your job? (instructional program and/or
	management of information)

     2. Question: How would you use technology to solve these
	problems / frustrations ?

     3. Question: Of all the suggestions you have just heard,
	which one is your highest priority?

     4. Question: If these recommendations were implemented, what
	would be the specific benefits to students, you, your school, the
	district, and the community?

     5. Question: How are you using technology today? If you're
	not using technology, explain the reasons for your decision. If
	you are, what do you see as your next step in utilizing technology
	effectively?

     6. Question: Do you have any other concerns or comments which
	we haven't covered in the survey of interview?
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THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY: FINDINGS

"We can no longer teach today's student with yesterday's tools and expect them to be successful."

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PROBLEMS

"Our classrooms are more like 'Gone with the Wind' and our students are more like 'Star Wars '. "

Problems with technology were identified as a result of the following interview question:

What problems/frustrations do you have in the daily performance of your job? ,i.e., instructional program and/or management of information.

Table 1.2 illustrates the intensity of the problem areas: [NCTP Note: Table 1.2 is inserted here -- horizontal bar chart. Pertinent info given below.]

Durango School District 9-R

What problems and frustrations do you face in the daily performance of your job?

The following responses indicate a concern about...


       Access to Technology- 100%
        Long Range Planning-  89%
         Information Access-  79%
                  Training -  76%
         Awareness/Attitude-  66%
                Networking -  32%
    Curricular Integration -  28%
                    Support-  23%
            *Other Concerns-   1%

Intensity of District Responses
January, 1992
* Non-technological problems including class size, at-risk students, etc.

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PROBLEM STATEMENT 1:

Access and equity to equipment and software.

The amount of technological equipment, software and services currently available is significantly inadequate to meet the needs of students and staff.

Currently access is based on availability rather than need.

"We have archaic technology in most of our schools. How can we educate our students for the future?! "

"Technology is the future, our kids are going to be crippled without it."

"Technology should be available to kids at all levels of ability."

"Currently my students don't use (the) computer very often, because we only have one computer in the classroom and we do not have a printer. The technology that they have is not very advanced, so it limits the possibilities."

PROBLEM STATEMENT 2.

Access and availability of information

The district lacks an effective system to organize and share information in an accurate and timely manner.

"Computers are supposed to make your life easier and that's what they should do."

"Communication skills are one of the most critical areas in education. It includes the thought process, problem solving, and the use of technology."

"A computer would help file and retrieve information. Every year it seems like starting all over again, because the forms and letters that we used last year are buried in boxes."

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"We have a lot of things that should be electronically done and transferred, and that is not happening at the present time."

"Student records could be better kept on a computer instead of writing on little cards that can't be found later."

"Every school/department maintains their own data base of information and most of these informational sources are compiled and maintained through a manual 13" x 5" card system."

"When staff or parents come in it would be (important) to be able to access all the information on a particular student in one location. I know the technology is available for a program to do this, instead of having to run all over the building collecting information."

"We need to get the elementary libraries automated. This would give us a lot more time to do actual instruction instead of doing a lot of clerical duties.'

"A physical inventory needs to be done more accurately, right now it is a horror story.

PROBLEM STATEMENT 13:

Training

Adequate training is not provided for staff to use technology effectively and efficiently. Technology training is not recognized as a priority.

"Teacher training is probably just as important as purchasing new technology."

"Until the staff is trained, all the money in technology is wasted."

"Computers will be used to the degree teachers are comfortable with using them."

"In a few years, if you don't have computer skills, you are not going to be employable . "

"It is scary that the kids know leaps and bounds more about computers than the teachers."

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"They (teachers) need training. On a scale of one to ten on knowledge of computers, the average student is at 13-4 and teachers are at 2-13."

"I am not using technology much, due to lack of training and time constraints."

"I need someone to help me figure things out. I want to improve, but when you get stuck it is so frustrating."

"Number one priority is to provide every teacher with a computer, get them trained . "

"Teacher training is my main priority in these areas of technology; because it doesn't matter how many computers you put in the room, if the teacher is intimidated and isn't comfortable with it and doesn't have the time, they are not going to use it." "In order for us to advance the abilities of students themselves, the educational process for teachers is going to have to change so that those skills are an integral part of what a teacher learns, and that it becomes a regular tool just as much as chalk."

"This is a must. Equipment is of little value if teachers don't know how to use it. Most teachers have not had training in the use of computers and many students know more than their teachers."

"More training is needed by all the staff."

PROBLEM STATEMENT 4:

Awareness and attitude

Reluctance of some educators to recognize the importance of technological advances, and to give them priority, has limited the use of education technology.

"We need a progressive mind set to try new things out."

"We have to get people through inservice and staff development to a point where they understand not only what is available but they can use it to facilitate student learning."

"Making the students more confident in a computer literate society."

"Through the use of computers, students will obtain lifetime skills and higher self-esteem plus personal achievement."

"We could give a higher level education to lower level students."

"Motivation for staff--more training; attitude would change."

"I see that from 1990s to the year 2000, capturing the attention of the MTV generation is going to get harder and harder. We need to use some new techniques and materials. We have a very sophisticated student body that is well read. We must find appropriate materials, and use them in a timely fashion."

"We have some pockets of people who have technology knowledge, but are sitting on an abyss wondering what to do with it."

PROBLEM STATEMENT 5:

Overall long-range district plan

The lack of a district plan prohibits appropriate use of current technology in the classroom.

"We in Durango do a lot of sitting on our hands waiting for tomorrow, and then we wake up to find out tomorrow was yesterday. How long can we afford to wait for technology increases? Technology is not going to stop or slow down."

"If we don't do something...9-R will continue to be behind a lot of other districts. We could end up as much as ten years behind."

"You can't build a skyscraper without a blueprint."

"If we don't plan, we'll end up with a nice electronic zoo of equipment."

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"Well guided use of appropriate technology will result in better use of the taxpayer's dollars by improving instruction and increasing productivity."

"It will cut down on the amount of paperwork and will save the district money by not having to duplicate papers and buy workbooks. I can see by doing things on magnetic media, you are cutting down on waste products. It also helps by increasing writing and reading skill development, with immediate feedback."

PROBLEM STATEMENT 6:

Support

The Durango 9-R School District lacks the leadership and support necessary to maximize the use of technology .

"We need a progressive mind set to try new things out."

"It is really disgusting that all the little districts around us, such as Cortez, Mancos, Bloomfield, have incredibly higher technology than we do. We are supposed to be one (of) the bigger communities around here and be sort of a learning center, but we are living in the dark ages."

"Need a district technology coordinator."

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PROBLEM STATEMENT 7:

Funding

Financing technology has not been a specific Durango 9-R School District priority.

"Using the computer would help by saving man hours."

"To produce a well rounded individual, 9-R must become computer literate. We must look at computers as a second language. We have too little hands on computer experience for the kids. 'I would like to see 9-R become a computer literate district.'"

"This is a town that cares about its children."

PROBLEM STATEMENT 8:

Curriculum Integration

Teachers are not empowered with skills and tools needed to educate kids into the next century.

Instructional technology is not integrated with district curriculum planning, instruction and staff development.

"As we get closer to Outcome Based Education, technology will play a more important role in instruction. More individual instruction will have to occur and computers, videos, and other technologies will help provide this."

"Technology has been used as 'extra', not integrated into daily lessons."

"Access of information is where education is."

"Since the technology exists, I think the students need the opportunity to explore the world beyond Durango."

"We could meet the needs of a wider range of students with technology."

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"Kids are the ones that will have to enter society and use this stuff, and they are good at it. It's neat to see kids in control of their environment and not controlled by it. "

"I see the individualization of students being the biggest benefit. Another benefit would be the kids would have greater independence."

"Some students get exposure in one school that has a higher technology rate, and then come to another school (and) have to take steps backwards."

"Lap top computers to keep sick students up-to-date, when they are absent for a long period of time."

PROBLEM STATEMENT 9:

Networking

The lack of a district-wide network inhibits the efficiency and productivity of staff and service to students.

"Everything in health services is done manually, which seems to be a lot of busy work. We do not have access to student files without physically going to each school."

"We need to be networked, everything has to be hand delivered between the buildings. We are going to have to have attendance records to the teachers by 13 p.m., but it takes about 13 hours to compile the records. This could be done on (a) computer in 30 minutes."

"Food Services would have better communication."

"Classrooms need to be connected to libraries."

"Interconnectedness. "

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	* Lack of immediate access to district-wide information
	  (student, budget, purchasing, and personnel) affects efficiency
	  and productivity.
	* No efficient communication exists between buildings.
	* The number and variety of forms being requested, exchanged,
	  and processed between sites and departments is generating
	  excessive paper handling.
	* No efficient communication exists within buildings.
	* Duplication of effort causes inefficient use of time and
	  wastes money.
	* Teachers do not have the technological capability to
	  communicate with other classroom teachers and staff.
	* Staff has difficulty avoiding conflicts when scheduling and
	  updating calendars.
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RECOMMENDATIONS

Inherent in the recommendations is the need to investigate the purchase of a mid-range computer. Only through the use of a mid- range computer will the computer platforms supported by this Technology Plan be able to communicate effectively. Additional recommendations were identified as a result of the following interview question.

Table 1.3 illustrates the recommendations:

[NCTP Note: Table 1.3 is inserted here. It is a horizontal bar chart. Pertinent information is given below.]

Durango School District 9-R
Recommendations for Technology
                    Accessibility- 100%
           Appropriate Technology-  87%
                       Networking-  65%
                Support Personnel-  52%
              Student Achievement-  43%
                Staff Development-  29%
                 Technology Goals-  29%
             Lite/Job Preparation-  14%
              Business/School Tie-   9%
                      Maintenance-   4%

					Intensity of District Responses

January, 1992
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RECOMMENDATION 1:

Access and equity to equipment and software

Appropriate and adequate state-of-the-art equipment and software will be provided to facilitate student learning and staff productivity.

Classroom Recommendations:
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RECOMMENDATION 2:

Access and availability to information

Provide an effective system to organize and share information in an accurate and timely manner.

RECOMMENDATION 13:

Training

Ongoing training shall be provided to all staff for current and future technologies.

	* Establish a staff development plan for technology.
	* On-site training will be concurrent with equipment
	  installation.
	* Create a training schedule that includes initial and
	  follow-up training that will accommodate employees' schedules.
	* Provide a site based network of peer support, with the
	  media specialist identified as site troubleshooter (at elementary
	  a minimum of a half-time media clerk per building will be hired to
	  release the media specialist for this function; at secondary a
	  minimum of a full-time  media clerk per building will assist.
	* Media specialist will facilitate screening of hardware and
	  previewing of software, then make recommendations.
	* Select a certificated Director of Technology (planning,
	  coordination of  programs, training, evaluation).
	* The Director of Technology shall facilitate staff training
	  in technology as well as direct technical support.
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	* College coursework will be offered to staff.
	* All current staff will be trained within two years.
	* New employees will have technology skills, or will be
	  required to be trained within one year.
	* Subsequent training will be required as technology
	  advances.

RECOMMENDATION 4:

Awareness and attitude

Provide ongoing awareness and training that will include a district-wide network that will connect office, school sites and classrooms. The training will provide for immediate and future technologies.

RECOMMENDATION 5:

Overall long range district plan

Provide improved district-wide planning.

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RECOMMENDATION 6:

Support

An ongoing human and electronic support network shall be developed for all staff creating an atmosphere of mutual support.

RECOMMENDATION 7:

Funding

"We can no longer teach today's students with yesterday's tools and expect them to succeed in tomorrow's world. Most education focuses on the world of 20 years ago. The future of our children and our society depends on meeting the challenges ahead. "

Allocation of funding for technology must be a district-wide priority; technology is an essential tool to achieve district outcomes.

RECOMMENDATION 8:

Curriculum Integration

Instructional software and technology will be integrated with district curriculum planning, instruction, and staff development.

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	* Instructional software evaluation, adoption, and purchase
	  will align with the current textbook adoption cycle.
	* Technology curriculum and staff development will align to
	  the current curriculum adoption cycle.
	* Provide students with electronic Media Centers: electronic
	  card catalog,
	* CD-ROM or on-line encyclopedias, on-line data bases,
	  VCR/laser disk stations, and audio CD/cassette stations.
	* An automated library/textbook information and management
	  system will  be installed to meet the needs of each school.
	* Presentation technology must be available to support the
	  curriculum.
	* Instructional networking within a building is necessary to
	  insure equity and access to district curriculum.

RECOMMENDATION 9:

Networking

Provide a district-wide network to connect offices, school sites and classrooms.

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THE HARDWARE DECISION

A substantial portion of the time and effort invested by the Technology Study Team was spent in discussions of the pros and cons of the two major computer hardware choices: P.C.'s (IBM and IBM compatible) and Macintosh (Apple). There has been concern expressed that, because of the involvement of IBM in the technology study process, the committee would be led down the "Big Blue" primrose path. Others have expressed concern that the committee might allow the fact that Apple products have developed a strong following within 9-R to have an undue impact on the ultimate recommendations.

Early in the technology study process we interviewed a broad cross- section of 9-R staff. We heard many times that a coordinated vision of how computers would be used was essential for our efforts to be successful. We also heard that many teachers had limited or no access to technology and many who did have at least limited access expressed concern that they had never been trained to use the computers in the educational process.

As is detailed elsewhere in this report, the committee has recommended that we implement a District-wide set of minimum standards for the use of computers in schools. We feel that, without this commitment to a base level of consistency, there is a great risk that we could end up with an unjustified discrepancy in the quality of the product we deliver to our students. We believe further that one common platform for some of the more commonly performed functions in the educational process will be the quickest, least painful way for the staff to reach the point where computers are as integral to the education process as textbooks.

The committee has recommended that each school install a "backbone" of IBM or compatible hardware. We realize that this decision will not be popular with many. We heard from many people that "P.C.'s are much harder for end users to deal with than Macintosh." In analyzing this argument we determined that, until recently, the Macintosh was a much more user-sensitive machine and that the Graphic User Interface (abbreviate GUI, pronounce GOOOEY) concept pioneered by Apple had caused many of our staff to conclude that Macintosh hardware provided a better solution to most educational needs. Upon further analysis, however, we determined that, in the last two years, the IBM world has realized the importance of GUI and has invested substantial sums to catch up with their competition in this area. We have concluded that, while the Macintosh may still retain a small advantage in the "ease of use" category, the difference should no longer carry a heavy weight in reaching hardware decisions.

In reaching our conclusion that the framework of our system should be built around the IBM platform, we list the following justification:

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Networking

We believe the concept of "networking~ computers is very important to the educational process. While both platforms offer networking features, we believe the flexibility offered in the P.C. environment is superior. Many people are not familiar with the educational advantages of networking within a school and sometimes express concern that this "main frame" mentality will limit the flexibility of the classroom teacher. Our analysis has led us to the conclusion that the opposite is true. Particularly in the elementary schools, we believe that networking is pivotal to the successful introduction of computers in the classroom.

Instructional Management

The P.C. platform offers a much more comprehensive system of instructional management systems. We must admit that our Superintendent, based on his experience in Summit County, strongly influenced the degree to which this aspect was emphasized. However, our committee agrees that we must be able to put powerful tools in the teach investment payoff. One of the most common concerns we heard from teachers is "we need more time". We believe that proper use of instructional management software will allow the teacher to more efficiently deal with the need of the students.

Courseware

We were unable to locate any authoritative source supporting the theory that there is substantial difference in the quality or quantity of courseware available on the two platforms. We have individually and collectively examined an awesome array of courseware available to each platform. Many of the people we have talked to have advanced the theory that the software should drive the hardware. We agree with this argument in principle, but we believe that there are practical limitations. While the existence of courseware in a particular area (e.g. Computer Aided Drafting or Graphic Arts) may occasionally dictate the hardware decision, the installation of computers in the classroom will, in general, limit the acquisition of individual pieces of software. It is our observation that, in general, the P.C. courseware available at the elementary level will equal or exceed the solutions offered on the Macintosh. We were unable to see or document such a clear difference in favor of either platform at the secondary level. However, our recommendations call for a heavier emphasis on labs in both environments at the secondary level which should allow more flexibility.

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Corporate Commitment

There is no question that IBM's participation in our study, the installation of the equipment at Riverview, and other financial commitments offered by IBM were not intended as charitable contributions. However, we believe we must consider the ability and commitment of the vendor(s) we select to support the environment we establish. This issue is particularly important because of our remote location. The implementation of our technology plan will undoubtedly result in some unforeseen problems that will require the patience of many of our staff and the support of the vendor. We believe that the corporate direction of IBM (away from hardware sales and toward the sale of software and services) will increase the chances that we will receive quality support after the sale.

District-Wide Network

While the funds may not be available currently to install a District-wide network; we think it advisable to create an environment that will easily allow all users to interface with a common data processing system. This goal would most likely be met with the acquisition of a mid-range computer. Apple does not offer such a solution, but it is possible to upgrade Macintoshes to allow them to communicate with the IBM AS/400. We believe it will be easier and cheaper to make the transition to a District-wide network if the hardware installed on the school-wide networks is directly compatible with the mid-range.

Administrative Solutions

The District is currently getting behind with much less than state of the art technology in the support functions provided. Because of the direct impact on students of instructional management and attendance modules, our plan calls for immediate implementation of District-wide solutions in these areas. Other areas of support such as ,personnel, accounting, transportation, purchasing and food service may have to wait until the needs of the schools are met. However, we believe that more solutions exist for these functions in the IBM environment and that the eventual need of school users to ultimately interface electronically with these support functions is an important factor in the current decision making process.

Costs

We heard arguments from both the IBM and Macintosh technology representatives indicating that their solutions were cheaper. After many discussions concerning this topic, we concluded that any time we compared "like-to-like" that the cost difference was not substantial.

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THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY: ACTION PLAN

THE TECHNOLOGY PLAN

"Well guided use of appropriate technology will result in better use of the taxpayers' dollars by improving instruction and productivity."

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ACTION PLAN

"Change is not an event.... it is a process."

Based on the information gathered from interviews and surveys, The Technology Study Committee has prepared the following Implementation Plan. This plan will be implemented upon Durango 9- R Board of Education approval and available funding.

The success of this plan is contingent on the creation and staffing of the position of Director of Technology. It is this person who will be primarily responsible for the development of the specific details of the training programs, as well as the day- to-day implementation of this plan. The Director of Technology will be the vital link in the support process included herein as well as providing guidance for the site level technical specialists.

This plan includes a five-year phase-in to provide for an orderly, systematic, thoughtful and cost effective implementation of the details. In addition, a carefully designed and implemented phase- in plan will provide for optimum opportunities for proper funding of the project.

The following critical elements of the plan are essential:

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MODELS

This plan establishes basic models of technology implementation in elementary schools, middle schools, the high school (see Appendix F for Fiscal Implications), as well as the district support offices with the following characteristics:

	* A backbone of networked computers within each building, so
	  that each teacher may access common teacher productivity
	  software, communications linkages (E mail and/or
	  telecommunications access) and a relevant instructional management
	  system to more effectively  handle the information available about
	  each of his/her students. To this end, each classroom or
	  instructional center shall have a networked computer connected to
	  a building file server.


	* Each classroom teacher workstation shall also be designed
	  to provide for teacher ability to project computerized materials
	  for classroom viewing, either through LCD projection or through a
	  large screen monitor.


	* Computerized media center to provide direct access of
	  student to the wealth of information ,available within the
	  library, as well as linked to other data sources.


	* Increased availability of other relevant technology, from
	  VCR's to in-building communication (PA) systems, from science
	  equipment to technology learning centers to course specific
	  software/hardware (music, graphics, CAD, etc.) from calculators to
	  telecommunications access.
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ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

	- computer / printer
	- projection device (large monitor or LCD display &
	  overhead)
	- teacher productivity software (word processing,
	  databases, spreadsheet, gradebook)
	- training to support network installation and use of
	  software     
	- networked computers
	- networked bundle of curriculum-appropriate courseware
	  training to support use of courseware
	- computers, letter quality/laser printer(s)
	- one optical character recognition scanner
	- one flatbed scanner
	- student/instructional support software
	- teacher productivity software
	- training to support network installation and use of
	  software
	- workstation (as above)
	- library management system, including barcode wand
	- one multi-media station (computer, CD-ROM, laser disk,
	  monitor, printer) (low end)
	- student/instructional support software
	- teacher productivity software
	- training to support network installation and use of
	  software
	- mini-computer lab, 6-7 networked computers
	- networked bundle of curriculum appropriate courseware
	- training to support use of courseware

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MIDDLE SCHOOLS

	- computer & printer
	- projection device (large monitor or LCD display &
	  overhead)
	- student/instructional support software
	- teacher productivity software
	- training to support network installation and use of
	  software
	- computers
	- letter quality/laser printer(s)
	- one optical character recognition scanner & one flatbed
	  scanner
	- student/instructional support software
	- teacher productivity software
	- training to support network installation and use of
	  software

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	- workstation (as above)
	- library management system, including barcode wand
	- two information access stations (computer, CD-ROM,
	  laser disk, monitor, printer) (low end)
	- student/instructional support software
	- teacher productivity software
	- training to support network installation and use of
	  software
	- mini-computer lab, 10-15 networked computers
	- networked bundle of curriculum appropriate courseware &
	  training
	- 1 portable multi-media (interactive station - high end) for
	  each middle school

DURANGO HIGH SCHOOL

	- computer
	- printer
	- projection device (large monitor or LCD display & overhead)
	- student/instructional support software
	- teacher productivity software
	- training to support network installation and use of
	  software
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	- computers & letter quality /laser printer(s)
	- one optical character recognition scanner & one flatbed
	  scanner
	- student/instructional support software
	- teacher productivity software
	- training to support network installation and use of
	  software
	- workstation (as above)
	- library management system, including barcode wand
	- one multi-media station (computer, CD-ROM, laser disk,
	  monitor, printer) (low end)
	- student/instructional support software
	- teacher productivity software
	- training to support network installation and use of
	  software
	- mini-computer lab, 5 networked computers
	- networked bundle of curriculum appropriate courseware &
	  training
	- 5 portable multimedia (interactive stations - high end)
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GENERAL TRAINING GUIDELINES

Teacher Productivity Stations (TPS):

Productivity Tools: Training to begin upon acquisition of hardware and software. Secondary teachers will be trained first with training to be done by IBM. Elementary teachers have the option to participate in the first TPS training session if they so desire.

This training will become available again in rotating cycles as appropriate.

Instructional Support System:

Five to eight core people within the district will be trained and designated as district trainers. Secondary language arts teachers, foreign language teachers, and art teachers will be offered training first, upon acquisition of ISS. Teachers not immediately involved in the first training session will have the option to participate in this component if they so desire.

TLC Stations in Elementary Schools:

Elementary school teachers will be trained on the TLC model. This will be in conjunction with the acquisition of the hardware.

Instructional and Production Labs in Middle School:

Teachers will be trained upon acquisition of hardware. The training will be conducted by software vendors in collaboration with the Director of Technology.

Media Centers at the Middle Schools:

Certified media center personnel will be trained and they will be responsible for the training of other media center personnel in the use of media software.

Technology Centers in Middle School:

Teachers will be trained upon acquisition of the hardware. The software vendors will provide the training in collaboration with the Director of Technology.

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Training Conclusions at Durango High School:

Teachers will be trained upon acquisition of the hardware. The software vendors will provide the training in collaboration with the Director of Technology.

The results of our staff interviews overwhelmingly indicated a definite need for both awareness and the provision of high quality training to be provided in the field of technology.

The Committee believes that the strongest strategy for insuring that students receive the full instructional benefits offered by technology be one which first encourages teacher use and confidence. With that in mind, the training and staff development program is essential.

The Committee recommends that adequate personnel be assigned responsibility for directing and coordinating the implementation of this District Technology Plan. The Committee recommends the hiring of a Director of Technology to perform the above duties. Further, it is recommended that media aides be hired at each site. This staffing will allow each school~s media center specialist to be designated to function as the on-site technology support person.

The Committee recommends that training and staff development activities be varied to meet the many different needs of staff. Training and staff development will be provided by vendors and colleges, as well as in-house trainers. All training will be done using the software and hardware available for use at the sites.

CRITICAL ELEMENTS OF TRAINING PLAN:

	* High quality training and support provided for all
	  employees.
	* Minimal disruption during work day for employee or
	  students.
	* Hands-on training experiences.
	* On-going training.
	* Training experiences designed to meet individual employee
	  needs and responsibilities.
	* Training to coincide with the installation of equipment at
	  work site.
	* Employee release time as necessary.
	* Professional growth opportunities/credit.
	* Training periodically evaluated and updated.
	* Training will occur in appropriate settings.
	* All teaching staff need to complete Training Levels I and
	  II before or concurrent with installation of Teacher Productivity
	  Stations.
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Training Levels:

Training classes offer the greatest opportunity for all district employees to become aware of technology and literate in its use. Completion of the training program described will help insure the successful implementation of the plan.

  1. Awareness/Literacy. Introduction
    This level is designed to introduce all employees to basic technology concepts and to provide the minimum level of skills required to learn specified tasks on their Teacher Productivity Station.
  2. Classroom/Office Applications. Intermediate
    This level provides specific instruction applicable to employees' jobs and is intended to enable the employee to increase user skills.
  3. Integration of Learned Technology. Advanced
    These ,classes will provide a higher level of technology instruction. Personnel will learn to utilize more advanced applications and solutions to meed individual technology needs.
  4. Specialized Training
    Specialized training will be offered to meet the needs of special user groups.

The Committee has reviewed the complexity of estimating training expenditures and recommends that 15% - 30% of the annual budget plan for technology be committed to training and support.

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TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION TIMELINE

[NCTP Note: This chart is too large to appear as it was in the original plan; we have, therefore, modified it from a grid layout to a legend layout. We hope this will suffice in the absence of the original.]

Date legend: A= 9/1/92; B= 6/1/93; C= 9/1/93; D= 6/1/94; E= 9/1/94; F= 9/1/95

Activity							Date


Backbone Installed						A

TPS Training
  District Trainers K-12					A
  Elementary Training						C
  Middle School Training					A
  DHS Training							A

Instructional Support
   District Trainers K-12					A
   Language Arts, Mod. Lang., Art				C
   P.E., Math, IS, Music					C
   Science							E
   Social Studies						F
   Elementary Teachers						C


Student Information System
  District Trainers K-12					A
  Staff								C

Computers in Classroom
  K-5 Installation						A
  Training for Computers
  in the Classroom.						A

Computer Labs
  Middle School / MAC's
  Installation & Training					C
  Middle School/IBM/Installation & Training			C
  DHS/Installation & Training					C

Media Centers K-12 Install & Training				D

Specialty Areas - Install & Training
  Science K-12, CAD - DHS					A
  Mod. Lang., - DHS						C
  Music - MS & DHS						A
  Graphics - MS & DHS						A
  Special Ed. - K-12						A
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Technology Implementation Schedule (continued from previous page)


Multimedia
  DHS								A
  Middle Schools						F
  Elementary							F

Calculators - 4-12						B

Technology Centers - Installation & Training
   Middle Schools						C
   DHS								F

Portable Computers						F

Biosphere/Installation & Training				F

District-wide Solutions (AS/400)				F

Personnel
	Director						6/1/92
	Technician						7/1/92
	Media Aides						9/1/92

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THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY: CONCLUSIONS

THE TECHNOLOGY PLAN

"Through the use of computers, students will obtain lifetime skills and higher self-esteem plus personal achievement."

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CONCLUSIONS

BENEFITS

Benefits of Technology

The value of technology needs to be seen in terms of a positive influence on student learning and achievement. The interview and survey results clearly indicate that district staff believe the application of technology in classroom instructional programs and support services has significantly improved the quality and effectiveness of instruction and services to the student.

Table 1.4 illustrates the benefits of technology. [NCTP Note: This exploded pie chart, as it appears in the original plan cannot be duplicated in this file. Pertinent information, however, is presented below.]

Benefits of Technology
Durango 9-R School District Survey

Student Achievement		36%
Job Skills/Life Prep		30%
Facilities			 1%
Money Savings			 5%
Home/School Tie			 5%
Teacher Satisfaction		 6%
Public Relations		 8%
Increase Efficiency		 8%

January, 1992
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Improved time utilization and redirection is an area where benefits of technology can be reasonably estimated. Other benefits, perhaps more significant in terms of technology implementation decision making, can only be measured indirectly. The interview comments indicate that this second category of benefits plays a strong role in attitudes about technology. Our interviews indicated some general, overriding benefits would result from using technology.

Improvement of Professionalism by:

     Raising staff level of expertise.
     Providing access to accurate information and records.
     Allow 9-R District Staff to make instructional decisions.
     Assisting staff in being able to produce more sophisticated
	materials.
     Making it possible to share with other professionals via
	improved communication facilities.

Improvement of Student Achievement by:

     Increasing student self-esteem.
     Making student effort more productive and allowing for more
	individual project work.
     Increasing student motivation and inspiration.
     Helping at-risk students.
     Monitoring individual student academic progress and growth.
     Preparing students for job and life skills.

 Improvement of Learning Center Environment by:

     Enhancing media availability.
     Reducing discipline problems.
     Increasing student motivation.
     Providing greater opportunity for student-directed learning.

 Provision of More Time for Instruction by:

     Providing more quality time with students.
     Providing individualized instruction.

 Improvement of Public Relations:

     Enhancing public awareness.
     Changing public perception of education.
     Understanding home/school relationships.

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Improvement of Self-esteem by:

     Raising staff morale.
     Reducing frustration and stress.
     Improving general attitudes toward technology .
Efficient Use of Time

Most of the interviewees felt that access to a networked database at their site would make them more efficient in performing their daily tasks. Technologies such as word processing, data bases, spreadsheets and electronic mail, and easy access to a terminal work area would save time, hence increase productivity.

Participants were asked to estimate the amount of time they could redirect if certain technologies were made available to them. These estimates were categorized by type, averaged, and reviewed by the study team. The average time estimates were validated by follow-up, supplemental interviews with selected knowledgeable staff. The team agreed on the final amount used in the calculation of time. In some instances, the stated time was reduced to be more consistent with the context of the issue.

A matrix of employee types and work activities showing estimated amounts of redirected time was developed to calculate the value of the time. Below is a summary of different job descriptions affected and the estimated average time saved by those interviewed.

Principals said they could redirect 1.2 hours per day if they had:

On-line information access which includes: Student information management system, disciplinary information, attendance, scheduling, and electronic mail. Additionally, access is available to staff and resource records.

With this redirected time, they could spend more time in classrooms and provide staff development for teachers.

Teachers said they could redirect .75 hours per day if they had:

Easy access to on-line student information, word processing, desktop publishing, student grading system, adequate technology training and technology in the classroom.

With this redirected time, they could spend more time performing individualized student instruction, planning, preparing and researching instructional materials.

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Counselors said they could redirect 1.5 hours per day if they had:

A personal computer at their desk with on-line information access to student scheduling, grades, transcripts discipline referrals. Moreover, for communication with parents, colleges, employers, counselors need word processing, spreadsheet, and data base applications.

With this redirected time, they could spend more time facilitating student support groups, counseling individual students, consulting with teachers. In addition, they could provide parents with more up-to-date information.

Media Specialists said they could redirect 2.0 hours per day if they had:

A library management system, on-line modem access, networked student work stations, CD-ROM and expanded video capabilities.

With this redirected time, they could spend more time instructing students, providing resource access to teachers and supporting technology rich environment.

School Secretaries could redirect 2.0 hours per day if they had:

A personal computer at their desk with on-line information access to student scheduling, student attendance and student emergency information. Moreover, for communication with parents, staff, and community, secretaries need word processing, spreadsheet and data base applications. A financial records management system to aid with budgetary and purchasing concerns would help efficiency.

With this redirected time, they could spend more time helping students, teachers and parents.

Health Aides could redirect 1.0 hours per day if they had:

Convenient on-line access to Student Records Management which would provide them with updated, accurate health and vaccination records and would be responsive to individual student health needs.

The reader should be aware of the dynamics of the school, classroom, and technology industry environments when considering the cost/benefit value of implementing a structured program of technology in the district. For example, the cost of high-tech equipment is being reduced as manufacturing methods improve and competition increases. Furthermore, cost projections and offsets are based on enrollment projections and current staff ratios. The value of the information presented in this report indicates that the benefits derived from the implementation of the proposed technology plan are significant, relative to the cost.

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Table 1.5 graphically illustrates those areas of technology which will result in redirected hours for selected staff positions. [NCTP Note: This is a wonderful table; however, its complexity prevents its being captured as ASCII information. To grasp the meaning of the table necessitates your getting a copy of the original plan. I can guarantee you, it's worth it!]

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EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES TO BE ACHIEVED VIA TECHNOLOGY

Utilizing the Durango 2000 Outcomes that define the requirements to receive a certified diploma from DHS, we have stated the developmentally appropriate outcomes for grades K-2, 3-5, middle school and DHS. These outcomes have been based on developmental research.

We have identified the following educational outcomes based on learners skills/knowledge in each of the grade levels.

GRADES K - 2

TECHNOLOGY OUTCOMES

Basic Skills & Civic and Social Responsibilities

Each student who progresses from second grade to grades 3-5 will show sufficient growth to have the prerequisite skills to be successful in each subsequent grade level in language arts (reading, writing, listening, speaking), mathematics, technology, science, fine arts and social studies.

Language Arts

The student will become an independent reader and will increase comprehension strategies and vocabulary skills with the assistance of an integrated learning program.

The student begins to communicate thoughts, ideas, information and messages in writing using appropriate spelling skills.

The student begins to interpret and respond appropriately to communication skills (listening). The student begins to organize his ideas and develops oral communication skills (speaking).

Interactive computer programs will assist students at their appropriate developmental stage by individualizing instruction in reading, writing, listening and speaking.

Based on the portfolio assessment, as identified in the language arts curriculum guide, the management process of monitoring the students will be assisted in a time saving manner via a computer monitoring system.

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Math

The student will begin to understand concepts, manipulate information, and use basic computational skills.

Interactive computer programs will assist students at their appropriate developmental stage by individualizing their instruction in math and providing opportunities to experience math concepts to further develop understanding and insight.

Computers will assist in the assessment of math skills, and the management process of monitoring the students will be assisted in a time saving manner via a computer monitoring system.

Integrated Curriculum

Introduction to science, social studies, technology, health, library skills, and fine arts skills will be assisted through the use of integrated learning systems and a variety of interactive technologies.

Example of an Integrated Curriculum Unit: The students will study their community including the components of location, weather, community workers, buildings and services. Students will understand the social studies skill of basic map reading, the science concepts of seasons and weather, the shapes of building and its relationship to art, etc.

Interactive computer programs will assist cooperative groups of students to understand the interconnectedness of science, social studies, art, etc., to their world.

Computers will assist in the assessment of basic skills.

Personal Qualities & Life Skills

Each student will show growth in responsibility for self and others, self-esteem, and cooperation.

The capacity of technology to motivate, meet individual needs and to provide immediate feedback facilitates student success.

In order to implement these education outcomes the following equipment is necessary:

Each classroom will need the following: networked computers, variety of software

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programs to assist student learning, TV monitors connected via cable and satellite dishes, tape recorders, overhead projector, microscopes and liquid crystal display (LCD) or large screen color monitors. Management and communication functions need to be available via a networked teacher work station.

Each building should have the following (based on size of the building): CD-ROM, laser disk player, VCR's and camcorders

GRADES 3 - 5

TECHNOLOGY OUTCOMES

Basic Skills

Each student who progresses from fifth grade to middle school will show sufficient growth to have the prerequisite skills to be successful in each subsequent grade level in language arts (reading, writing, listening, speaking), mathematics, technology, science, fine arts and social studies.

Language Arts

Reading: Reads actively and critically for information, understanding, and enjoyment (e.g., prose, literature, documents, manuals, graphs, schedules).

Writing: Effectively communicates thoughts, ideas, information, and messages in writing; creates a wide variety of written materials.

Listening: Interprets, evaluates, and responds appropriately to communication.

Speaking: Organizes ideas and communicates orally with confidence.

Interactive computer programs will assist students in their appropriate developmental stage by individualizing their instruction in reading, writing, listening and speaking.

Based on the portfolio assessment as identified in the language arts curriculum guide, the management process of monitoring the students will be assisted in a time saving manner via a computer monitoring system.

Students will be introduced to desktop publishing: Keyboarding, producing published documents with text and graphics, and use of editing functions, including spell checking.

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Math

The student will continue to develop an understanding of concepts, manipulate information, and use basic computational skills.

The student in mathematics will begin to solve practical problems by applying a variety of mathematical principles.

Interactive computer programs will assist students in their appropriate developmental stage by individualizing their instruction in math and providing opportunities for cooperative group learning and problem solving.

Computers will assist in the assessment of math skills and the management process of monitoring the students will be assisted in a time saving manner via a computer monitoring system.

Integrated Curriculum

Science, social studies, technology, health, library skills, and fine arts skills will be emphasized and supported through the use variety of interactive technologies.

In grades K-2 the emphasis was on acquisition of basic language arts and math skills, then units were integrated through these priorities. Now, content will be emphasized in science, social studies, etc.; and language arts and math skills will be taught through those units.

Example of an Integrated Curriculum Unit: The students will study their U.S. geography and history by including the components of location, climate, natural resources, geology, timelines, historical biographies, recreational activities in different geographical regions, regional art and music, etc. Students will understand the social studies skill of map reading, the science concepts of climate and geology, the art of the U.S., etc.

Interactive computer programs will assist cooperative groups of students to understand the interconnectedness of science, social studies, art, etc. of the United States, i.e. Crosscountry U.S.A., U.S.A. Geograph, etc.

Computers will assist in the assessment of basic skills.

All students will continue their growth in creative thinking, decision making, reasoning, and planning.

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Example: The children will apply their problem solving and thinking skills via computer simulation or programming

Personal Qualities & Life Skills

Each student will show growth in responsibility for self and others, self-esteem, and cooperation.

The capacity of technology to motivate, meet individual needs and to provide immediate feedback promotes student success.

Each student will be able to access, analyze, and use information via various formats available in the media center.

In order to implement these education outcomes, the following equipment is necessary:

Each classroom will need the following: networked computers, laptop computers, calculators, microscopes, variety of software programs to assist student learning, TV monitors connected via cable and satellite dishes, tape recorders, overhead projector, and liquid crystal display (LCD). Management and communication functions need to be available via a networked teacher work station.

Each building should have the following (based on size of the building): CD-ROM, laser disk player, VCR's and camcorders, telecommunications, automated media center system as the hub of information retrieval (ACCESS COLORADO), and closed circuit communications. Resource rooms should have touch screens and touch software, and possibly, voice activated software.

GRADES 6-8

TECHNOLOGY OUTCOMES

Basic Skills, Civic & Social Responsibilities, Integration

Each student who progresses from grades 6-8 to high school will show growth in language arts (reading, writing, listening, speaking), mathematics, technology, science, fine arts and social studies. However, the most significant contribution of the middle school experience is the integration of all these areas in the life of each student.

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Language Arts

Reading: Reads actively and critically for information, understanding, and enjoyment (e.g., prose, literature, documents, manuals, graphs, schedules).

Writing: Effectively communicates thoughts, ideas, information, and messages in writing; creates a wide variety of written materials.

Listening: Interprets, evaluates, and responds appropriately to communication.

Speaking: Organizes ideas and communicates orally with confidence.

Interactive computer programs will assist students in their appropriate developmental stage by individualizing their instruction in reading, writing, listening and speaking.

Based on the portfolio assessment as identified in the language arts curriculum guide, the management process of monitoring the students will be assisted in a time saving manner via a computer monitoring system.

Students will be introduced to keyboarding, desktop publishing, producing published documents with text and graphics, and use of editing functions.

Math

The student will continue to develop an understanding of concepts, manipulate information, and use basic computational skills; e.g. the child will apply their problem solving and thinking skills via a computer simulation or other relevant technological solution.

The student in mathematics will continue to solve practical problems by applying a variety of mathematical principles, by recognizing, understanding and demonstrating basic operations, by solving and manipulating equations and inequalities.

Interactive computer programs will assist students in their appropriate development stage by individualizing their instruction in math and providing opportunities for cooperative group learning and problem solving.

Computers will assist in the assessment and the management of math skills acquisition process.

Interdisciplinary Studies

Science, social studies, technology, health, library and media skills, modern

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languages, vocational/business/life skills and fine arts skills will be emphasized and supported through the use of integrated learning systems and a variety of interactive technologies.

Science: Understand scientific method (observation, prediction, experimentation and communication) characteristics of living things, basic principles underlying scientific processes (such as matter, atoms, energy, electronic cells, living and non-living resources, climate and earth's ecology).

Social Studies: By understanding the basic principles underlying human social interactions, students will learn to make responsible decisions for the future. By broadening their knowledge base of the world, they will demonstrate an increasing awareness of and sense of responsibility for civic duties, democratic values, respect for other nations, races, cultures and individuals.

In grades K-5 the emphasis was on acquisition of basic language arts and math skills. Units were integrated through these priorities. In middle school, content will be emphasized in science, social studies, etc.; language arts and math skills will be taught through these integrated units wherever possible.

Example of an Interdisciplinary Unit: By using a problem solving approach the students will study their U.S. Geography and history by including the components of location, climate, natural resources, geology, timelines, historical biographies, recreational activities in different geographical regions, regional art and music, etc. Students will understand the social studies skill of map reading, the science concepts of climate and geology, the art of the U.S., etc., at a deeper and more developmentally appropriate level than in elementary school.

Interactive computer programs and other relevant technology (CD- Rom, laser disks, technology learning centers, etc.) will assist cooperative groups of students to understand the interconnectedness of science, social studies, art, etc., of the United States and the world. There will be a five station Integrated Learning System (ILS) that will be used to assist at- risk students at the middle level.

Computers will assist in the assessment and monitoring of basic skills.

Thinking Skills

Each student will continue growth in creative thinking, decision making, reasoning, planning and organizational skills; e.g the student will apply problem solving and thinking skills via a computer simulation or other appropriate technological solution.

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Personal Qualities and Life Skills

Each student will show growth in responsibility for self and others, self-esteem, cooperation and the ability to work independently.

The ability of technology to motivate, meet individual needs and to provide immediate feedback enhances the chances for student success.

Each student will be able to access, analyze, and use information via various formats available in the media center, as well as accessing other appropriate technology within the building.

To implement these educational outcomes, the following staff development, personnel and equipment is necessary:

Each classroom will need the following: networked computers (LAN) with display capabilities, calculators, microscopes and other science equipment, variety of software programs to assist student learning, TV monitors connected via cable and satellite dishes, tape recorders, overhead projectors, etc.

Each building should have the following (based on size of the building student population): networked computers for a system within the building (information management and access), computers networked to a centralized district data base, two networked instructional labs, one production lab with audio and video production capabilities, five station Integrated Learning System (ILS), CD-ROM, laser disks, VCR's and camcorders, telecommunications and other technology to support distance learning, automated media center system for information retrieval, ACCESS COLORADO, closed circuit communications capabilities, a technology learning center (TLC), and multi-media stations.

GRADES 9-12

TECHNOLOGY OUTCOMES

Technological Philosophy

A Durango High School graduate should have developed life-long skills in communicating, thinking and learning. Technological integration is paramount in preparing students to meet the challenges of an increasingly more technologically advanced society. To that end, we believe the DHS community, both teachers and students, should have an adequate level of access, training and literacy for technology. Furthermore, technologies will need to be included in everyday curriculum in order to motivate the 21st Century generation. Included in this basic level of access, should be curricular integration of technology. Technical equipment will help integrate curriculums to produce a student with a greater appreciation of inter-connectedness of the various disciplines.

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	* Interactive instructional computer lab (in addition to the
	  current open lab) would allow students access to the latest
	  innovative teaching modalities in modern language, math, social
	  studies, language arts and science. In addition, the lab would
	  allow students to learn at their own pace when used as an
	  Independent Learning Center Recent research indicates that the
	  modern teacher is most effective in the role as facilitator. When
	  used correctly, an interactive instructional lab complete with
	  computers, VCR's and CD-ROM or laser disks, would indeed allow the
	  DHS teacher to move toward the role of facilitator.

	* Access to computers on an individual basis remains a
	  priority.  Laptop computers would allow students and teachers
	  alike access to technology, regardless of their socioeconomic
	  status.  Moreover, the savings in teachers' and students~ time
	  would allow for more productivity.

	* A minimum level of access to student information is
	  necessary to increase the efficiency and the productivity of all
	  staff members. A district-wide  network with grade, testing
	  information, health records including emergency information,
	  transcripts and schedules must be available to all staff members. 
	  Terminals should be available in at least each department and in
	  each counselor's and administrator's office.

	* Multi-media seems to be an increasing trend in education,
	  because of the  increasing awareness of the importance of varied
	  learning styles and  the integration of right and left brained
	  learning activities. In addition, multi-media presentation work
	  stations have applications in video and audio editing through the
	  use of recent developments such as Quick Time video capture and
	  Aldus Premier video editor or IBM multimedia workstations. DHS
	  currently has no open access video cameras; therefore, camcorder
	  availability would be an important component of a multimedia
	  system.

	* An advanced desktop publishing and printing center complete
	  with appropriate computers, large screen monitors, scanners,
	  laserwriters, and an offset printing press could become the
	  printer center for Durango High School and District 9-R. We can
	  think of no better way to integrate business, technology, language
	  arts and technical education curricula in one hands-on
	  environment. A real savings in money could be realized by the
	  district in addition to the real world business experience that
	  would be gained by the students.

	* Training and curricular development is a key component of
	  any technology plan. Without the proper training of faculty and
	  associated release time to develop appropriate curricular
	  outcomes, there will be no
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	  access to the technology. We consider training and availability of
	  the equipment of equal importance. Without staff tie-in and
	  progressive compensations, any technological program will fail.
Additional Specific Needs in Priority Order

Access to information on a school-wide basis remains a problem. Satellite communication with multiple VCR's linked with worldwide information, modems to connect with national databases and bulletin boards, access to information through CD-ROM storage and access to books through MARMOT card catalogue all provide the 21st Century generation instant access to the world. Today's world is an information based world and without immediate and current access, School District 9-R will continue to fall behind neighboring districts. The DHS media center would become a connection to the world through various levels of access to information.

DHS science department has limited current advanced scientific equipment. In addition, DHS is trying to implement an advanced placement science curriculum, and without advanced science equipment, an AP program will not be a possibility. Science equipment could include, but not be limited to, advanced measuring equipment with computer integration, a gel electrophoresis, teaching microscopes with monitors, and software to use in an interactive computer lab to do lab experiments, calculations and write-ups on the computer. In addition, a biosphere would aid school wide instruction in biology and science. Overall, students would go from reading about science to actually performing science.

A site-based technology support person is a key component to any technology plan. This expert could preview software and help keep staff current concerning software needs, answer technology-related questions, and provide curricular and technological support for staff.

Developing a schoolwide fitness and wellness lab would be at the center of an integrated curriculum between physical education, science and health. Included in the center could be pulse and blood pressure monitors with health related exercise software.

A technical and vocational education center or facility remains key to the integration of various curriculums in a hands-on based setting. Equipment should include the latest in metal working, construction, and CAD/CAM technologies. A biosphere would also be a key component of an agri-science center.

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FUTURE

"Just let us get into the twentieth century."

"We want to prepare kids for life outside of school."

"The more technologically literate they are, the easier it will be for them to use critical thinking skills in the future."

"Access to information is the most important thing we're going to leave them with."

Now more than ever before, it's essential that Durango 9-R School District plan and consider student needs to alter d course of action that is designed to meet present and future education needs. We want our technology centers to become community wide center of learning and to utilize community members as volunteers and advisors. Expanding course offerings, communicating with experts and students around the world, empowering and exciting students, nurturing students growth by individualizing, providing interactive learning environments, and providing equity for our changing demographics are key components in planning for the future.

Education is changing. We look for more parent involvement in education as the same telecommunications system a family uses for bargain hunting and managing its stock portfolio ties parents into announcements of homework and school events. Teachers can expect to find more up-to-date information in students' reports as on-line access to information eases searches on current material. The teacher's role will continue to evolve toward that of manager/coach of student exploration and away from the traditional role of "sage on the stage." And classrooms will become "windows on the world" as they connect with experts and other classrooms around the globe.

Students who are reluctant to express themselves orally are already blossoming with the help of on-line communications. Those students are liberated by the anonymity of technology that remains neutral to appearance, body language, race, gender, or disability.

Finally, educators can expect their students to be prepared for lifelong learning in a world where telecommunications will be a primary source of information. We will prepared students to accept the challenges of the 21st Century.

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CONCLUDING REMARKS

The Technology Committee has found the construction of this Technology Plan both exhilarating and frustrating. Along with most employees interviewed, the Technology Study Team also expresses a positive reaction to being included in the decision- making process that greatly influences our chosen professions

The Technology Study Team understands the fiscal difficulties of implementing technology in the district, but we pursued the completion of this Technology Plan by refusing to allow any obstacles to inhibit or derail our mission to bring Durango 9-R School District into the 20th Century and possibly beyond.

We chose to focus on the possibilities, not the impossibilities we chose to do it right!

This Technology Plan is a systematic, step by step process to bring technology into the hands of students, teachers, and staff. All implementation phases are reinforced by a varied training plan based on user knowledge and user skills. There are some areas that we will continue to watch. With the ever changing upgrades, new machines, and new software there is an abundance of new knowledge plus. Specifically, the Director of Technology should keep abreast of the lawsuit between Apple and Microsoft over Windows, the viability of OS2s, PS2s quickly becoming outdated and if the cabling component of this proposal should be allowed to be subcontracted through IBM or if we should use local cabling windows.

At-risk programs will be uniquely affected by technology. When the district completes their comprehensive At-Risk Plan, we assume it will contain a major technology component.

We could continue to meet and revise/update this proposal, but the Technology Study Team concludes that this is a viable document that will grow and change as technology grows and changes.

The Technology Committee solicits your support in the adoption and implementation of this Technology Plan.

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APPENDICES

Appendix A
Director of Technology Job Description

TITLE: DIRECTOR OF TECHNOLOGY

ASSIGNMENT: 12 months annually

LOCATION: to be determined

REPORTS TO: Superintendent

HQUALIFICATIONS:

  1. Minimum of an earned bachelor' s degree with teacher certification .
  2. Three years actual classroom teaching experience.
  3. Ability to demonstrate knowledge of contemporary technology.
  4. Must have experience in coordinating and implementing programs with large and vaned groups of people.
  5. Such alternatives to the above qualifications as the Board may find appropriate and acceptable.

PERFORMANCE RESPONSIBILITIES:

SCHOOL BOARD OPERATIONS:

	Provide the Superintendent with technology information and
        material to properly manage the district.

	Provide reports for the Board, as requested.

DISTRICT MANAGEMENT:

	Implement and maintain the District Technology Plan.

	Assist in the initial installation of networks, hardware.
        and software per District Plan.

	Supervise the network to insure its smooth and efficient
	operation.

	Coordinate technology applications with instructional goals.

	Assist and coordinate the integration and follow-up of
	technology applications in the K-12 curriculum.

	Supervise technical assistance on computer applications.

	Develop a software selection and review process.

	Establish and maintain current inventory of all hardware,
	software, and peripherals in the District.

	Approve all technology purchases over $250.00.

	Review and update acquisition procedures and plans.

	Develop and implement a plan for personal and professional
	growth.

	Maintain equity and consistency of technology throughout the
        District

	Develop. implement monitor and update a long-range plan which
        identifies building or departmental needs and priorities.

	Develop and implement an annual management plan which
	addresses district. building* and departmental needs and
	priorities in accordance with time lines stated in the management
	planning process. (* As appropriate for each administrator.)

     	Function in committee assignments as designated by the
        Superintendent or immediate supervisor.

     	Provide Superintendent, or designee, with information of
	events of an unusual nature relating to assigned management
        responsibilities .

     	Implement procedures in concert with federal and state laws,
        district policies and procedures.

     	Develop budgets. personnel requirements. research methods and
        procedures which will provide for greater efficiency and
        productivity of personnel and equipment within building
	or department.

     	Assist in revision of District Technology Plan.

EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS:

     	Organize training programs on the use of software
	applications.  hardware. and specialized technology equipment
	and solutions.

     	Assist and coordinate the integration and follow-up of
 	technology applications in the K-12 curriculum.

      	Coordinate technology applications with instructional goals.

      	Administer and develop guidelines for a District check out
	program for computers and software.

      	Administer and develop guidelines for community access to
        technology labs in the schools after regular hours.

      	Cooperate with the sponsors of district-wide. regional.
	state or national competitions in which the district
	participates. and may require technical assistance.

BUDGET AND FINANCE:

      	Develop alternative funding sources for technology program
	as directed by the Superintendent.

      	Supervise technology budget and purchasing in accordance
	with the District Plan.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT:

      	Maintain office management responsibilities inherent to the
	position or as delegated by the immediate supervisor.

      	Initiate and participate in the appraisal of staff
	performance in accordance with existing policies and 
	administrative procedures.

      	Coordinate duties and monitor the responsibilities of
	assigned staff members.

      	Participate in the recruitment and selection of new
	employees in accordance with established district procedures.

      	Conduct staff meetings as warranted or as needed.

      	Enforce provisions of master contracts and district
	policies.

PUPIL SERVICES:

      	Assist in training of students on hardware. software. and
	specialized technology.

      	Act as a resource to students seeking specialized
	information or direction regarding technology.

SUPPORT OPERATIONS:

      	Assist in supervising the effective utilization of equipment
	and supplies.

      	Maintain inventory and control of assigned properties.

      	Provide other tasks and responsibilities as assigned by the
        Superintendent.

COMMUNICATIONS AND PUBLIC RELATIONS:

      	Provide continuous communication with the public and the
	schools

LEGISLATIVE:

      	Maintain information base on legislative changes concerning
        technology

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Appendix B
Technician Job Description
TITLE: Technician

ASSIGNMENT: 12 months annually

LOCATION: to be determined

REPORTS TO: Director of Technology

QUALIFICATIONS:

  1. Two to five years of repair experience in computer maintenance.
  2. Must be familiar with work capabilities and limitations of various computers.
  3. Understand basic blueprint reading and engineering specifications.
  4. Willingness to assume responsibility.
  5. Ability to make emergency decisions concerned with power, equipment failure, and similar disturbances.
  6. Ability to work with employers staff, students and general public.

POSITION SUMMARY:

      This position is responsible for maintaining all technical
      equipment in a condition of operating excellence and safety
      so that full educational use can be made of the equipment and to
      assist other members of the maintenance and technology staff in any
      capacity whenever the need arises.

PERFORMANCE RESPONSIBILITIES:

SCHOOL BOARD OPERATIONS:

      Provide the Director of Technology with information and
      material to properly support the district in technology.

      Provide reports for the Board, as requested.

DISTRICT MANAGEMENT:

      Assist the Director in the implementation and maintenance of
      the District Technology Plan.

      Assist in the initial installation of networks hardware, and
      software per District Plan.

      Assist in the supervision of the network to insure its
      smooth and efficient operation.

      Assist in the coordination of the technology applications
      with instructional goals.

      Assist and coordinate the integration and follow-up of
      technology applications in the K - 12 curriculum.

      Provide technical assistance on computer applications.

      Assist in software selection and review process.

      Inspect all computers annually (more often if necessary) and
      confer with principals and custodians regarding needed
      repairs.

      Cooperate with the Director of Technology in establishing
      guidelines for minor in-school repairs and emergency repairs.

      Assume responsibility for the safe condition of computers.
      electrical apparatus, fixtures, wiring, printers CD - ROM,
      and similar technologies in school facilities.

      Assume responsibility for safe condition of all facilities.

      Recommend supplies and equipment for support of maintenance
      projects and maintain an inventory of District owned tools
      and equipment.

      Assist in establishing and maintaining current inventory of all
      hardware, software, and peripherals in the District.

      Assist in the review and updating acquisition procedures and
      plans.

      Develop and implement a plan for personal and professional growth.

      Assist in maintaining equality and consistency of technology
      throughout the District.

      Assist in developing, implementing, monitoring and updating a long-
      range plan which identifies building or departmental needs and
      priorities.

      Function in committee assignments as designated by the Director of
      Technology.

      Provide Director of Technology, with information of events of an
      unusual nature relating to assigned management responsibilities.

      Assist in the implementation of procedures in concert with
      federal and state laws district policies and procedures.

      Assist in the development of budgets, personnel requirements,
      research methods and procedures which will provide for
      greater efficiency and productivity of personnel and equipment within
      the building or department.

      Assist in revision of District Technology Plan.

EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS:

     Support training programs on the use of software applications.
     hardware. and specialized technology equipment and solutions.

     Support the administration and development guidelines for a
     District check out program for computers and software.

     Support the administration and development of guidelines for
     community access to technology labs in the schools after
     regular hours.

     Cooperate with the sponsors of district-wide, regional, state
     or national competitions in which the district participates, and
     may require technical assistance.

BUDGET AND FINANCE:

     Support the development of alternative funding sources for
     technology program as directed by the Director of Technology.

     Assist in the development and maintenance of a technology
     budget.

     Assist in purchases in accordance with the District Plan.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT:

     Maintain office management responsibilities inherent to the
     position or as delegated by the immediate supervisor.

PUPIL SERVICES:

     Assist in training of students on hardware, software, and
     specialized technology.

     Act as a resource to students on hardware, software, and
     specialized information or direction regarding technology.

SUPPORT OPERATIONS:

     Assist in supervising the effective utilization of equipment
     and supplies.

     Maintain inventory and control of assigned properties.

     Provide other tasks and responsibilities as assigned by the
     Director of Technologies

COMMUNICATIONS AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

     None.

LEGISLATIVE:

     None.

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Appendix C
Previous Durango 9-R School District Technology Studies

1986 TECHNOLOGY STUDY

In 1986 the Durango 9-R Technology Committee was composed of:


     Chuck Leech             		Durango High School
     Charlotte Brune     		Durango High School
     Alice Smith McClain     		Durango High School
     Loris Rank              		Riverview Elementary
     Barb Gysel               		Riverview Elementary
     Jim Mooney               		Mason / Park Elementary
     Nora Doyle               		Florida Mesa / Sunnyside
     Jon Cordalis             		Florida Mesa / Sunnyside
     Linda DeNier             		Miller Junior High School
     Kim Canatsey             		Miller Junior High School
     Larry Johnson            		Needham Elementary
     Mary Beaber             		Needham Elementary
     Judy Michalski           		Administration
     Linda Sanders            		Fort Lewis Mesa
     Dan Stangby              		Smiley Junior High School

This committee created a district plan.
Briefly the plan included the following:

1. Through personal interaction with computers and other
	instructional methods, students shall be enabled to learn the
	development, basic operation and capabilities of computers,
	understanding general applications, and impacts of computing.
	Included within this goal are the following components:

      * Students at all levels shall have opportunities to use
	computer software for basic knowledge and skills, as well as for 
	higher-order concepts and reasoning skills.

      * Secondary school students shall have access to instruction
	in computer programming.

      * Senior high school students should have access to word
	processing and data  processing instruction, as part of the
	existing curriculum.

      * All elementary students shall have the opportunity to work
	with Logo, Bank Street Writer, or other word processing software,
	and to develop keyboarding skills, as materials can be acquired.

2. All teachers shall be encouraged to utilize computer hardware
	and software as a multi-media tool in teaching within various
	adopted curricula.

3. Teachers will be encouraged and enabled to use available
	computer systems through district provision of inservice and/or 
	through scheduling and support of credit coursework.

4. Computers should be available to teachers for monitoring
	student progress and achievement.

5. Computers should be available to teachers for previewing
	materials and to increase their own computer literacy, though
	student's instructional use has first priority.

6. The curriculum will include the need for the student to develop
	an understanding of information technology and its uses in
	society and the work place.

In addition to the goals, the 1986 Technology Committee specifically identified the competencies to be demonstrated by a Durango High School graduate.

STUDENT SKILL GOALS IN 1986

A student graduating from Durango High School should have the following skills:

1. User skills:

       *Basic skills sufficient to allow the student to operate a
	computer, utilizing keyboard terminals and peripheral equipment, 	
  	such as disk drives and printer.

       *Sufficient knowledge of utilities, routines and applications 	 	
  	programs to develop skill in evaluating and selecting appropriate
 	software to meet his/her assessed needs.

       *Basic skills sufficient to allow the student to participate in
	computer networking, electronic mail and interactive video.

More specifically, these skills include:

	a. Typing.
	b. Handling equipment, hardware and software (manipulation).
	c. Knowledge of software and hardware vocabulary.
	d. Following program instructions (within program and
	   manuals).
	e. Retrieval of software according to district classification
	   system.
	f. Care of hardware and software.
	g. Knowledge of keyboard symbols.
	h. Ability to distinguish between problems that can be solved by
     	   computer applications and those that cannot.
	i. Ability to select appropriate software applications and
	   software based on personal needs, goals and monetary 	  
	   restrictions. 

2. Skills of computer literacy:

       *A knowledge of the computer's pervasiveness and impact on
	society, computer related occupations, computer systems and
 	components and computer history.

3. Students interested in pursuing programming should have the
   following skills:

       *Create text files, amend and delete records for sequential
	and random files.
       *Problem-solving to design a program.
       *Design a program to simulate natural phenomenon.
       *Knowledge of and ability to program in one low level language 
	and 1 or 2 high level languages (PASCAL, BASIC).
       *Programming with emphasis on math or programming with an
	emphasis on business.

1991 TECHNOLOGY STUDY

Then in June 1991, a second report was presented to the Board of Education from the 1990-1991 Technology Committee. The members were:

     Kim Canatsey        	Computer Teacher, Miller Middle School
     Jon Cordalis        	Computer Teacher, Smiley Middle School
     Stan Dunlap         	Principal, Miller Middle School
     Barb Gysel          	I.S. Teacher, Middle School / Riverview
     Sandy LaFrance      	ILS Lab Teacher, Ft. Lewis Mesa
     Dr. Judy Michalski  	Curriculum Director, District 9-R
     Mary Anne Nelson    	I.S. Teacher, Needham/Sunnyside
     Mary Kay O'Neil     	Media Specialist, Park School
     Mike Quintano       	4th Grade Teacher, Needham
     Patty Schauf        	Computer Lab Technician, High School
     Bonna Steinle       	5th Grade Teacher, Florida Mesa
     Melissa Vance       	4th Grade Teacher, Sunnyside School
     Marilyn Kirkwood    	Librarian, Riverview

They developed the following instructional goals:

INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS IN JUNE 1991

  1. Students will understand technology and how it is used.
  2. Students will develop the competency necessary to use technology as a tool to create, access synthesize, evaluate and communicate information. All students will use word processing to facilitate writing.
  3. Students will be assisted by technology to achieve 9-R curriculum outcomes (i.e., manage information, individualized, etc.).
  4. Students will utilize technology to produce marketable skills.
  5. Students will acquire lifelong learning skills through involvement in meaningful real world experience which allow students to produce a product they value.
  6. Students will have the opportunity for instruction in career exploration (vocational) programs which reflect the integration of technology.
  7. Students will be presented with simulations of otherwise unavailable experiences.
  8. Technology will be used to communicate between schools, and to communicate between school and home.
  9. Teachers will be encouraged to use technology to create instructional materials, develop and deliver instructional plans and evaluate student learning.
  10. Teachers, as users of technology, will enhance instruction by being facilitators/coaches for learning.

In addition to goals, the committee developed the following Vision Statement:

TECHNOLOGY VISION STATEMENT 1990-1991

Educators must make every effort to prepare students to be thoughtful, productive, and happy citizens of tomorrow. The 1990s are the transitional years leading into the Age of Information, the 21st Century. People must be equipped to meet the challenges of working and living in a society in which success will depend on getting, understanding, and manipulating information.

At a time when information is changing from passive to interactive, new methods of learning are required. These new methods require learners to be active participants in the learning process. We propose a student centered curriculum rather than teacher dominated. A reasonable goal, given these priorities, is that every student be technologically literate by the time they leave high school, able to apply appropriate technology as needed to meet education and personal goals. We propose that every student in 9-R become technologically literate through applying technology to activate the following: (a definition of technologically literate)

      * To get information, students need to learn how to search for 
	information, read and analyze the material they find, and
	effectively communicate about it with others.

      * To understand information, students need to develop thinking skills,
	visualize outcomes, solve problems creatively, and learn
	cooperatively.

      * To manipulate information they need to be able to learn how to 
	learn, learn how to adapt to changes, think creatively, make
	decisions, solve problems, and learn how to ask questions.
	Technology, in the form of computers and computer centered
	learning environments, will enable students to control their
	learning in a motivating and creative way.

Why Technology? Because technology can:

  1. Provide individualized instruction.
  2. Provide an environment for cooperative learning.
  3. Provide a means for interdisciplinary learning.
  4. Create an active learning environment.
  5. Accommodate a variety of learning styles.
  6. Increase thinking skills.
  7. Increase instructional time.
  8. Increase student involvement.
  9. Facilitate classroom management.

This goal can only be realized by a financial, as well as philosophical, commitment by the School District. Without this commitment our students cannot hope to compete with those from other districts where technology is already an established component in the curriculum.

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Appendix D
Durango 9-R School District Survey

DURANGO SCHOOL DISTRICT 9-R

EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY STUDY

for
Teachers, Librarians, Counselors, and other Instructional Staff

1991-92 SCHOOL YEAR

Please circle the category that best applies to your position:

l. Type of Personnel                           A.   Classroom Teacher    (101)
   (Select only one)                           B.   Instructional Aide   (2) 
                                               C.   Librarian            (3)
                                               D.   Counselor            (6)
                                               E.   Special/Elective/I.S./
						    Spec. Ed.     	 (20)

2. Which level are you most associated	       A.   Elementary           (73)
   with? (Select only one )                    B .  Middle School        (34)
                                               C.   High School          (23)
                                               D.   District             (0)

Part I

INSTRUCTIONAL APPLICATIONS

Instructions: Please answer the following questions by placing your answer on this sheet. Mark "A" for Yes. Mark "B", if you do not use the specific type of technology, but would if available/trained. Mark "C" if a type of technology or its use is not needed, mark "D" if you are not familiar with this item.

                                       	Yes  No, But Would        Not    Don't
                                             If Available/Trained Needed Know

3.  Do you have a computer at home that
    you use for school work?          	A (50%)	  B (42%)	C (8%)	D (1%) 
4.  Do you have a computer in your 
    classroom/office/workroom for your 
    use?     				A (67%)   B (32%)   	C (1%)   D (0%)
5.  Do you sometimes use a scanner
    for test scoring?                  	A (18%)   B (29%)  	C (51%)  D (2%)
6.  Do you use a computer for grade
    keeping?                            A (25%)   B  (38%)  	C (35%)  D (2%) 
7.  Do you use a computer for equipment  
    inventory?                         	A (6%)    B (38%)   	C (55%)  D (1%)
8.  Do you use a computer for textbook
    inventory and/or control?          	A (9%)    B (36%)   	C (54%)  D (2%)
9.  Do you sometimes prepare student
    exercises and tests on a computer? 	A (60%)   B (30%)  	C (10%)  D (0%) 
10. Do you sometimes write progress
    reports with a computer?          	A (44%)   B (37%)  	C (19%)  D (0%)
11. Do you prepare lesson plans with a
    computer?                         	A (29%)   B  (32%)  	C (40%)  D (0%)
I2. Do you order supplies on a 
    computer?    			A (3%)    B  (44%)  	C (52%)  D (1%) 
13. Do you manage your instructional
    or activities budget with a 
    computer?    			A (6%)    B (49%)   	C (46%)  D (0%)
 
  
                                                                Revised l/22/92


 
                                  	Yes  No, But Would	  Not  	 Don't 
                                             If Available/Trained Needed Know

14. Are IEP's done with a computer?  	A (11%)   B (27%)  	C (29%)  D (33%)
15. Are curriculum guides and syllabi
    available on the computer?        	A (13%)   B  (24%)  	C (19%)  D (45%)
16. Is there a centralized collection 
    of multi-media materials at your 
    school?          			A (76%)   B (10%)  	C (2%)   D (12%)


    Do you use technology (courseware, video, cable, computers,
    satellite TV) for the following? (Items 17-23)

17. Drill and Practice               	A (60%)   B (23%)  	C (15%)   D(2%)
18. Tutorial                          	A (47%)   B (34%)  	C (16%)   D(3%)
19. Educational Games                  	A (64%)   B (23%)  	C (11%)   D(2%)  
20. Modeling and Simulations           	A (39%)   B (42%)  	C (14%)   D(6%)
21. Reading/Writing Process           	A (46%)   B (34%)  	C (18%)   D(2%)
22. Experimentation                    	A (27%)   B (48%)  	C (16%)   D(10%)
23. Computer Assisted Instruction      	A (38%)   B (45%)  	C (11%)   D(7%)


    Do you use the following software? (Items 24 - 33)

24. Authoring System                 	A (10%)   B (35%   	C (20%)   D(20%)
25. Budgeting/Expenditures            	A (4%)    B (43%)  	C (47%)   D(6%) 
26. Career Planning                   	A (1%)    B (36%)  	C (52%)   D(12%)
27. Class Scheduling                  	A (10%)   B (30%)  	C (52%)   D(8%)
28. DeskTop Publishing                	A (35%)   B (41%)  	C (21%)   D(3%)
29. Electronic GradeBook              	A (20%)   B (41%)  	C (35%)   D(4%) 
30. Purchasing/Warehouse Orders       	A (1%)    B (45%)   	C (48%)   D(7%)
31. Spreadsheet                       	A (29%)   B (37%)    	C (30%)   D(5%) 
32. Student Records                    	A (33%)   B (47%)  	C (16%)   D(3%)
33. Word Processing                   	A (75%)   B  (21%)  	C (4%)    D(1%)
34. Do you use the computer to teach 
    critical thinking skills?         	A (32%)   B  (54%)   	C (10%)   D(4%)
35. Is the computer used for library 
    services?       			A (50%)   B (27%)  	C (7%)    D(17%)
36. Where would you like to see 
    student computers in the school?  	A.   In labs                  (8%)
                                     	B.   In classrooms            (10%)
                                     	C.   In classrooms and labs   (82%)
                                      	D.   None of the above        (0%)
37. If your answer is B or C on 
    the previous question, how many 
    computers would you prefer in 
    the classroom?               	A.   I      		      (8%)
                                      	B.   2-4                      (36%)
                                     	C.   5-8                      (30%)
                                      	D.   One per student          (10%)
                                       	E.   One for every 2 students (16%)

38.   In a lab?                     	A.   5-10                     (4%)
                                     	B.   11-15                    (5%)
                                    	C.   16-20                    (11%)
                                      	D.   One per student          (71%)
                                     	E.   One for every 2 students (9%)


                                                            Revised 1/22/92

******************* PAGE BREAK **********************

Part II

CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION

Instructions: Please indicate if you use or would use each of the following types of technology to assist you in your Position by placing your answer on this sheet. Mark "A" for Yes. 'B" is you do not use but would if available/trained. Mark "C" if type of technology not needed: mark "D" if you are not familiar with item: mark "E" if item does not apply to your position.

           			A  	   B          C         D          E 
           			Yes        No, But    Not       Don't     Does
                     			   Would If   Needed    Know       Not
                     			   Available                     Apply
                                                     			    To
                                                   			  Your
                                               			      Position

39. Artificial Intelligence 	A  (5%)    B  (12%)   C  (13%)  D(50%)    E(20%)
40. Bar Code Reader          	A  (1%)    B  (8%)    C (21%)   D(39%)    E(31%)
41. Cable TV                  	A  (50%)   B  (29%)   C  (12%)  D (3%)    E(6%)
42. Computer/LCD Projection
    Panel Overhead Projector  	A  (40%)   B  (38%)   C  (8%)   D (13%)   E(2%)
43. Compact Disc Player       	A  (19%)   B  (35%)   C  (27%)  D(11%)    E(9%)
44. CD-ROM Player            	A  (11%)   B  (33%)   C  (14%)  D (32%)   E(12%)
45. Cellular Phones          	A (5%)     B  (25%    C  (36%)  D (13%)   E(21%)

46. Color Printers           	A (34%)    B  (46%)   C (14%)   D (4%)    E(2%)
47. Computer Assisted
    Instructional Material   	A (42%)    B  (43%)   C (5%)    D (8%)    E(2%)
48. Computer Networking       	A (28%)    B  (41%)   C (8%)    D (17%)   E(6%)
49. Copy Machines             	A (77%)    B  (14%)   C (13)    D (2%)    E(4%)
50. Data Scanner              	A (13%)    B  (24%)   C (18%)   D (33%)   E(12%)

51. Digitized/Synthesized
    Speech                   	A (8%)     B  (17%)   C (20%)   D (36%)   E(20%)
52. Digitizers                	A (13)     B  (8%)    C (15%)   D (57%)   E(17%)
53. District Mainframe
    Computers                 	A (4%)     B  (13%)   C (14%)   D (49%)   E(20%)
54. Education TV/ITV         	A (39%)    B  (30%)   C (10%)   D (16%)   E(5%)
55. Electronic Chalkboard     	A (13%)    B  (27%)   C (10%)   D (43%)   E(7%)

56. FAX Machines             	A (9%)     B  (26%)   C (30%)   D (16%)   E(19%)
57. Image Scanner              	A (8%)     B  (31%)   C  10%)   D (38%)   E(13%)  
58. Laptop Computer             A  (14%)   B  (36%)   C (22%)   D (18%)   E(10%)   59. Large Screen Video  
    Projectors                  A  (27%)   B  (40%)   C  (16%)  D (12%)   E(5%) 
60. LASER Printer           	A  (40%)   B  (42%)   C  (6%)   D(10%)    E(13)

61. LCD Projection Panels    	A (8%)     B  (17%)   C (12%)   D (54%)   E(9%)
62. Local Area Network(LAN)    	A (6%)     B  (17%)   C (13%)   D (54%)   E(10%)
63. MIDI-Musical Instrument
    Data Interface            	A  (2%)    B  (12%)   C  (22%)  D  (41%)  E(23%)
64. Modem/Telecommunications    A  (8%)    B  (28%)   C  (12%)  D  (40%)  E(12%)
65. Network/File Servers       	A  (11%)   B  (24%)   C  (8%)   D  (48%)  E(9%)

                                                                Revised 1/21/92

                          	A          B          C         D         E
                           	Yes        No, But    Not       Don't     Does
                                   	   Would If   Needed    Know       Not
                                           Available                     Apply
                                                                            To
                                                                          Your
                                                                      Position

66. Overhead Projectors       	A  (81%)   B  (1()%)   C  (5%)   D  (2%)  E(2%)
67. Optical Storage            	A  (6%)    B  (9%)     C  (13%)  D  (61%) E(12%)
68. Personal Computers
    (For staff member use)    	A  (59%)   B  (30%)    C (5%)    D  (4%)  E(2%)
69. Personal Computers
    (For student use)         	A  (58%)   B  (34%)    C  (13)   D  (13)  E(2%)
71. Portable P.A./Music/
    Sound System               	A  (27%)   B  (22%)    C  (22%)  D  (11%) E(19%)
72. Robotics                  	A  (11%)   B  (21%)    C  (18%)  D  (32%) E(19%)
73. Satellite-Two Way
    Communication            	A  (10%)   B  (20%)    C  (18%)  D  (39%) E(14%)
74. Touch Screens              	A  (17%)   B  (24%)    C  (14%)  D  (40%) E(9%)
75. Video Screens              	A  (38%)   B  (22%)    C  (10%)  D  (26%) E(5%)
76. Videocassette Recorders   	A  (74%)   B  (16%)    C  (2%)   D  (4%)  E(4%)
77. Video Conferencing        	A (9%)     B  (26%)    C (18%)   D (36%)  E(11%)
78. Video Disk Player         	A (20%)    B  (26%)    C (14%)   D (29%)  E(11%)
79. Video Editing Equipment   	A (6%)     B  (35%)    C (20%)   D (28%)  E(12%)
80. Voice Activation         	A (6%)     B  (18%)    C (21%)   D (42%)  E(13%)
81. Wide Area Network        	A (5%)     B  (13%)    C (17%)   D (50%)  E(15%)

Part III

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

A . Instructions: Please circle your answer on this form of how frequently you communicate with staff in the following locations.

                                Daily    Weekly   Occasionally Rarely   Never

82. Other sites within district	A (5%)   B  (25%)    C (43%)   D (21%)  E(6%)
83. Other sites outside 
    district     		A (1%)   B  (7%)     C (36%)   D (43%)  E(14%)
84. Colo. Depart. of Education 	A (0%)   B  (0%)     C (14%)   D (60%)  E(26%)
85. Other State Agencies       	A (0%)   B  (1%)     C (15%)   D (47%)  E(37%)
86. Other Government         	A (0%)   B  (1%)     C (18%)   D (44%)  E(37%)
    Agencies
87. Federal Agencies         	A (0%)   B  (1%)     C (12%)   D (49%)  E(38%)
88. Colleges and Universities  	A (2%)   B  (5%)     C (46%)   D (37%)  E(11%)
89. Public Networks            	A (0%)   B  (4%)     C (14%)   D (42%)  E(39%)
90. Social Service Agencies   	A (1%)   B  (5%)     C ( 24%)  D (40%)  E(31%)

                                                                Revised 1/22/92

******************* PAGE BREAK ************************

B . Instructions: Please circle your answer on this form for the frequency with which you would communicate within your own school/department using the following:

                           	Daily    Weekly  Occasionally Rarely   Never

91. Telephone           	A (56%)  B  (12%)   C (13%)   D (8%)   E (12%)
92. Electronic Mail       	A (11%)  B  (4%)    C (14%)   D (18%)  E (53%)
93. Internal Mail          	A (25%)  B  (28%)   C (28%)   D (8%)   E (10%)
94. Teleconferencing      	A (5%)   B  (3%)    C (18%)   D (21%)  E (53%)
95. InterCom. System      	A (21%)  B  (11%)   C (10%)   D (15%)  E (44%)
96. Electronic Bulletin Board 	A (11%)  B  (11%)   C (15%)   D (13%)  E (50%) 
97. Closed Circuit T.V.   	A (8%)   B  (6%)    C (18%)   D (18%)  E (50%)

C . Instructions: Please circle your answer on this form for the frequency with which you would communicate outside your own school/department using the following:

98. Telephone             	A (53%)  B  (21%)    C (20%)   D (4%)   E (2%)
99. Fax Machine           	A (5%)   B  (10%)    C (30%)   D (22%)  E (33%)
100. Electronic Mail       	A (5%)   B  (8%)     C (18%)   D (24%)  E (45%) 
101. U.S. Mail             	A (18%)  B  (30%)    C (39%)   D (8%)   E (5%)
102. District Mail          	A (21%)  B  (37%)    C (36%)   D (3%)   E (3%)
103. Teleconferencing       	A (2%)   B  (6%)     C (24%)   D (27%)  E (41%)
104. Instructional TV        	A (7%)   B  (14%)    C (31%)   D (22%)  E (27%)
105. Elect. Bull. Bd.       	A (7%)   B  (8%)     C (24%)   D (16%)  E (46%)
Part IV

STAFF DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING

Instructions: Please circle your answer on this sheet that best reflects staff development/training activities you feel are necessary to do your job and to address the technology advances you perceive will be in place in the next two to five years. Mark "A" for high priority activities and "D" for low priority activities. Mark "E" for staff development activities not applicable.

                                      High                       Low      N/A

106. Do you see a need for a central
     Technology Center that would
     provide technical support.
     preview and review?              A (52%)  B  (21%)  C (15%)  D (10%) E(2%)

107. Where would you most like
     technology training to occur?    A.   School Site                  (74%)
                                      B.   Media Center Librarian       (10%)
                                      C.   Vendors Site                 (2%)
                                      D.   Technology Center            (13%)
                                      E.   At Home                      (2%)

                                                               Revised l/22/92

108. When would you most like
     technology training to occur?    A.   During School Day              (29%)
                                      B.   After School                   (8%)
                                      C.   Weekend                        (0%)
                                      D.   Summer                         (9%)
                                      E.   District Designated 
					   In-service Days  		  (54%)

109. How would you most like
     technology training to occur?    A.   Formal Class                  (58%)
                                      B.   Training Manual/Tutorial       (9%)
                                      C    Training Diskettes/Workbook    (6%)
                                      D    Video Based Tutorial           (5%)
                                      E.   Discover Class                 (22%)

110. Who do you call when you need
     help with software, equipment
     or maintenance?                  A.   Designated Site Resource 
					   Teacher       		  (43%)
                                      B.   Principal                      (3%)
                                      C.   Vendor                         (2%)
                                      D.   BOCS                           (33%)
                                      E.   Other                          (19%)

************************ PAGE BREAK ************************

Schedule for Technology Interviews
Pilot Interview             	9:00 A.M. Thurs., December 19, 1991

     Norm Higgs - Principal Smiley Middle School
     Dale Falk - Social Studies Teacher, Smiley Middle Teacher
     Corky Stahn - K - 12 Library Coordinator, Smiley Middle School Librarian
     Ken Spence - Special Education Dept. Chair/Teacher DHS
     Pat Speno - Grade 3 Teacher, Park Elementary School
     Rich Yeager - Community Liaison
     Jackie Kelley - Secretary DHS

Elementary Students          	8:00 A.M. Wed., January 15, 1992

     Emelia Anziano - Ft. Lewis Mesa Student
     Andy Tripp - Florida Mesa Student
     Derek Loutensock - Needham Student
     Mahlon Wigton - Park Student
     John Gring - Riverview Student
     Garrett Hoisington - Sunnyside Student
     Brian Beach - Sunnyside Student

Secondary Students            	9:30 A.M. Wed., January 15, 1992

     1. David Gilford - Smiley
     2. Patrick (Suess) Beyer - Smiley
     3. Arthur Brown - Miller
     4. Tim Holt - Miller
     5. Jacob Bailey - DHS
     6. Lauren Whitehurst- DHS
     7. Pat Williams - DHS

Middle School Teachers   	1:00 P.M. Wed., January 15, 1992

      1. Pat Starns - 6th grade Miller Middle School
      2. Mike Brennan - 6th grade Smiley Middle School
      3. Tom Jones - 7th grade team Smiley Middle School
      4. Priscilla Shand - 8th grade team Smiley Middle School
      5. Linda Eskridge - 7th grade team Miller Middle School
      6. Steve Trubow - 8th grade team Miller Middle School
      7. Butch Laue - Exploratory Representative Smiley Middle School

Support Services          	3:30 P.M.  Wed., January 15, 1992

     1.   Bill Pugh                      2.    Jim Federico
     3.   Alice Nikolaisen               4.    Rob DeNier
     5.   Bruce Linville                 6     Debbie Mevers
     7.   Terry Hutchison                8     Narietta Sears
     9.   Doris Carmen

Business/Community         	5:30 P.M.  Wed., January 15, 1992

     1. O.D. Perry, FLC            2.     Howie, Connecting Point
     3. Bard Heroy, FLC            4.     Kurt Wagner, Dgo Herald
     5 John Dever,  FLC

Grades K - 2 Teachers          8:15 A.M.  Thurs., January 16, 1992

     1. Sharon McAnear - Riverview
     2. Kay Rowe - Needham
     3. Pam Peavy- Park
     4. Janis Segal-Larson - Fort Lewis Mesa
     5. Beverly Mehlman - Florida Mesa

Grades 3 - 5 Teachers          10:30 A.M. Thurs., January 16, 1992

     1. Jennifer Kolarik - Park
     2. Gene Keen - Sunnyside
     3. Jeff Bernard - Florida Mesa
     4. Larry Johnson - Needham
     5. Cathy Sugnet- Riverview
     6. Katherine Callister - Fort Lewis Mesa

 DHS Teachers               	1:00 P.M.   Thurs., January 16, 1992

      1. Steve Schauf - DHS
      2. John Flemons - DHS
      3. Judy Duke- DHS
      4. Jack Tallmadge - DHS
      5. Debbie Barnes - DHS
      6. Brent Brown - DHS

Technology Committee     	3:30  P.M. Thurs., January 16, 1992

     1.  Kim Canatsey                 6. Patty Schauf
     2.  Barb Gysel                   7. Melissa Vance
     3.  Mary Anne Nelson             8. Marilyn Kirkwood
     4.  Mary Kay O'Neil              9. Lynne Walters
     5.  Mike Quintano                10. Donna Mederios

Parents                        	7:30 P.M. Thurs., January 16, 1992

     Wayne Dale              Sunnyside Elementary School
     Dale Weishel            Needham Elementary School
     Bob Dickerson           Miller Middle School
     Julie McCrea            Florida Mesa Elementary School
     George Usinowitz        Park Elementary School
     Paul Lemon              Smiley Middle School
     Jayne Griffith          Smiley Middle School
     Julie Patterson         Needham Elementary School
     Jim Robertson           DHS
     Ted Bartlett            DHS
     Jill Weingartner        Riverview Elementary School

Instructional Support    	8:30 A.M.  Fri., January 17, 1992

     1. Greg Janus - IS
     2. Susan Mooney - Elem. Lib.
     3. Paula Lutz - DHS Lib.
     4. Karla Mulkey - Elem. Counselor
     5. Tom Talley - Middle School Counselor
     6. Deb Duncan - DHS Counselor
     7. Anita Albright - Resource

Secretaries             	10:30 A.M.  Fri., January 17, 1992

      1. Julie Morrison
      2. Brenda Walker
      3. Emily Robertson
      4. Patty Hanneman
      5. Janell Wallack

Administrators                 	1:00 P.M. Fri, January 17, 1992

     Marcie Denham - Sunnyside Elementary Principal
     Susan Martinez - Fort Lewis Mesa Elementary Principal
     John Welcher - Florida Mesa Elementary Principal
     Bobby Wright - DHS Principal
     Pete Harter - Needham Elementary Principal
     Walt Jackson - Superintendent

Individual Interviews      	various times

     John Welcher - Florida Mesa Elementary Principal
     Jane Higgs - Needham Elementary Assistant Principal
     Larry Johnson - Grade 3 Teacher, Needham Elementary School
     Mike Quintano - Grade 4 Teacher, Needham Elementary School
     Tom Talley - Counselor, Smiley Middle School
     Debbie Barnes - DHS Science Teacher
     Jirn Dale - Director of Transportation
     Corky Stahn - K - 12 Library Coordinator, Smiley Middle School Librarian
     Ted Bartlett- Chemistry Professor, Fort Lewis College
     John Condie - Biology Professor, Fort Lewis College
     Robert Likes - Physics Professor, Fort Lewis College
     Steve Schauf - DHS Agriculture Education Teacher
     David Pearson - DHS Drafting Teacher
     Brent Brown - DHS Social Studies Teacher
     Dale Kraemer - Miller Science Teacher
     Kip Schreiner - DHS Career Counselor
[NCTP Note: Appendix F is the charts of FISCAL IMPLICATIONS, which are unable to be transfered. For the content, checking the original charts is necessary.]